Press the switch and the light goes on. “As if by magic” - but this all depends on power plants which generate energy and the utility companies which sell the energy and send the bills to the end consumer.
In fact, your bill will tell you the answer to that very important question: are you on the free or regulated market?
This different is important because it affects what you are going to pay for the electricity you use. And because you have absolute liberty to choose which of the two you want to use.
Half of the Spanish households (13 million) are on the free market and the other half are on the regulated market. But the free market is on the up, in fact in recent months it has overtaken the regulated market.
First things first: what is your market? If you don't know, it is easy to find out. Just look at the top of your bill:
If it says Endesa Energía S.A. Unipersonal then you are on the free market:
And if it says Endesa Energía EEXXI S.L.U. then you are on the regulated market:
But why are there two different markets?
In the past, the entire electricity market was regulated and prices were set by the government.
The market began to be deregulated in 1997. Within this process, 2009 was a very important year:
Since then, consumers have been able to choose who they are going to pay their bill. At the moment, they can choose from almost companies which sell electricity.
The market liberalisation process is not yet complete, however, and the regulated market still exists. The two markets share two of the three basic parts of each electricity bill:
Access fees:these are set by the government and are used to pay the costs of maintaining the electricity grid and transporting the electricity to your home.
Taxes: Special tax on electricity and VAT
What is different in the bill is the price charged for producing electricity.
The regulated market
This called the PVPC tariff (Voluntary Small Consumer Price). This price changes hourly and daily demanding on the balance of supply-demand between whoever is producing energy (the generation company) and whoever is selling this energy to consumers (the company selling the electricity).
If you have a smart meter, then this complex prices curve is applied to your bill. This means that your bill will go up if you consume more electricity at expensive times of the day and will go down if you consume more at the cheaper times.
All consumers can ask to pay the PVPC rate as long as they have a contract power of lower than 10 kW. And they can only do so with certain authorised companies which sell electricity (there are only 7, and one of them is Endesa Energía XXI).
On the regulated market, the kWh price changes from one day to another.
The Free market
Here are the rates of all the free market retailers (there are almost 100).
The price is set by the company, which announces it and puts it in the contract - just as with other services such as telephone, etc. For example, with your telephone, you know how much you are going to pay for each minute - and with your electricity, you can have the same peace of mind, as you know how much each kWh you consume will cost you. Come rain or shine, no matter if is windy, cold or hot, this is the price you are going to pay - unlike the regulated market.
Everyone can agree to pay their electricity on the free market - in fact, most Spanish households prefer to do so this way.
On the free market, the price per kWh is what is says in your contract.
Can you change from one market to another?
Of course. Liberalisation means just that - being able to choose. Anyone who wants to change from the PVPC rate is welcome to use the free market. Consumers who are on the free market can change to the regulated market, as long as their contract power is not above 10 kW.
All consumers are entitled to change to the free market whenever they wish